Hughesair (Inflection Point)

Retired physician and air taxi operator, science writer and part time assistant professor, these editorials cover a wide range of topics. Mostly non political, mostly true, I write more from a lifetime of experience and from research, more science than convention. Subjects cover medicine, Alaska aviation, economics, technology and an occasional book review. Globalization or Democracy documents the historical roots of Oligarchy, the road to colonialism and tyranny

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Location: Homer, Alaska, United States

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Thursday, January 26, 2023


 We deteriorated into an epidemic of adult children from fatherless families. Now society wants to create motherless families as well. Soon we can imagine childless families of one.

Friday, January 20, 2023

 ChatGPT at OpenAI

I asked ChatGPT to write an essay on Godley and Cripps sectoral balance equation and its application to present day Globalization. This was the reply in 3 seconds.

 Godley and Cripps sectoral balances equation is an economic model that helps to understand the interplay between different sectors of an economy, specifically the government, the private sector, and the external sector (i.e. trade and capital flows with the rest of the world). The equation states that the sum of the government budget balance, the private sector balance, and the balance of the external sector must be zero. Mathematically, it is represented as:

Government Budget Balance + Private Sector Balance + External Sector Balance = 0

This equation is based on the idea that in a closed economy, any deficit in one sector must be offset by a surplus in another sector. For example, if the government runs a budget deficit, it must be financed by either a private sector surplus or a trade deficit.

The sectoral balances equation has important implications for understanding the impact of globalization on an economy. In the context of present-day globalization, the external sector balance is becoming increasingly important as countries become more integrated into the global economy through trade and capital flows.

One of the key ways in which globalization affects the sectoral balances equation is through its impact on the trade balance. As countries become more integrated into the global economy, they become more dependent on exports and imports. This can lead to a trade deficit if imports exceed exports, which must be financed by either a government budget deficit or a private sector surplus.

Another way in which globalization affects the sectoral balances equation is through its impact on the capital account balance. As countries become more integrated into the global economy, they become more dependent on foreign capital to finance investment. This can lead to a capital account deficit if capital outflows exceed capital inflows, which must be financed by either a government budget deficit or a private sector surplus.

We Overall, the sectoral balances equation provides a useful framework for understanding the impact of globalization on an economy. It highlights the interdependence of different sectors and the need for balance between them in order to maintain economic stability. As globalization continues to increase, it is important for policymakers to take into account the sectoral balances equation in order to ensure that the economy remains balanced and sustainable in the long-term.”

This is copyright material owned by OpenAI. They make no claim as to its accuracy. The program remains open and in Beta. This description of a fundamental macroeconomic equation while stated in a different format than in my book is correct as is the implication for globalization. The private sector surplus referred to implies a liquidity flow out of the working side of the economy to fund the deficits. Not shown here, the full equation allows for further liquidity flow inti investments; thus, furthering a capital divergence and a further enrichment of banks, technology and oligarchs. Such contributes to one of the avenues of self interest that combine in globalism to drain wealth from our Middle Class and negate both personal and economic freedoms. 

Thursday, January 05, 2023


 “ I would rather a question that cannot be answered than an answer that cannot be questioned”

Richard Feynman

Treatment Guidelines

 “There are more things on heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.”

       The new medical student might learn that clinical judgment demands the physician as a scientist, to look far beyond the guidelines, algorithms, or demands of a medical bureaucracy. Start with diagnosis and the onion. Peal away the layers. Know that multiple problems often conflict with protocols. 

Sunday, December 25, 2022

Mass Psychosis

 Totalitarian conspirators use mass psychosis to subjugate the population. Chaos, hate and fear renders a population vulnerable to propaganda and illogical thinking, the formula for mass psychosis. History recounts this phenomenon again and again. People don’t recognize the phenomena in time to change. Only resistant parallel constructions such as religion, think tanks and astute contrarians afford protection or recovery from the cry to comply with a return to totalitarian rule.


Wednesday, November 30, 2022


 My new book needs a more compelling title than Theory of Moral Imperatives. Bastards sums it up far better. Im still at the outline stage, and I've written several versions as a creative non-fiction with humor. American culture has been circulating the drain for a long time, driven by Socialist policies of equality, entitlements, hysteria and societal depression, not the least of which drives an epidemic of bastards. Should I include suggested solutions? Most writers would not. Intriguing, does 93 years with 50 practicing medicine give me the right? Maybe not.

Friday, November 18, 2022

Dialectic Materialism 2022

 On November 8, 2022 a thin majority of midterm voters confirmed their wish to abandon our Republic in favor of authoritarianism. Directives for the mitigation of the COVID19 pandemic, fighting climate change came with the promise of a Great Reset to International Socialism, Globalization and a new world order.

Subversion of our Republic did not start with climate change, the pandemic or Vietnam but with our independence and freedom in 1776 and our Constitution in 1787. King George pored vast sums of money into overt action and subversion of our new nation. From the start of International Communism with Carl Marx and Friedrich Engels’  Communist Manifesto, Communist dictators targeted America with their highly structured and highly successful strategies of subjugation .

Communist subversion comes in 4 stages - a dialectic.

  • Demoralization 
  • Destabilization 
  • Crisis 
  • Normalization 

Intelligence agencies established NGOs with positive sounding names with enough support to finance any minority with any basis for complaint, not for their benefit, but for persecution, victimization and demoralization. The KGB exploited racial conflict and promoted racism. This successful strategy targeted unions, teachers and even young students setting them against their parents. The war in Vietnam provided Communists a greater chance to set young people against their government. 

The prolonged phase of demoralization succeeded in spawning a whole generation of youth believing that Democracy failed because of racism, corporations and their parents. Ready for the second phase, destabilization, it turned out that the CCP and the PLA utilizing ancient Chinese pathways of bribery and compromise succeeding where the KGB strategy fell short. Through flattery, grant and academic engagement, then with ultimatum, Chinese operatives in Confucius Foundations subverted legislators, city governments, the judiciary, universities, Hollywood, even churches and “defunding the police.” Propaganda, censorship and incarceration without due process lead the parade, all under the banner of Democracy, equality and global warming.

We experienced the conflict, hate, chaos, and crisis, which followed the destabilization. Rioting, murders, conflagration and division. Now comes the normalization phase of the dialectic. Totalitarian control, replace the US dollar with a digital currency, the new Normalization views any resistance as domestic terrorism, or racism, with a promise of zero emissions and a social utopia of equality calling it, saving-our-Democracy.

Importance of Being Someone

            VIctor Davis Hanson wrote a book about the loss of the American citizen. A democracy, a democratic republic cannot exist without responsible citizens. By definition, representative government requires participating citizenship to function. The very concept, however, evolved existentially and evaporated over time.  

             Our founding fathers struggled with the concept of, who were the representatives of the representative government? Men only, no slaves and English law suggested 21 years of age. Should only land owners vote, or should only financially responsible men be allowed to vote. Voting rights evolved, but remain highly contentious today. English law formed the basis for US law and French law in states that were part of the Louisiana purchase. Birth certificates designated legitimate married parents, a designation intended to discriminate against lawless adults and enforce the civil institution of marriage. A felony conviction negated the right to vote, hold office, or in some cases, to obtain a passport.

             Liberalism and existentialism triumphed over the morays of our culture, equality over responsibility. Truth, loyalty, honor, God, and the importance of being someone went the way of all the other American institutions. If you are not someone, you run the risk of being no-one. 


              If US citizenships mean nothing, young people gain nothing by shouldering the responsibilities and discipline required of citizenship. Never mind the classical or cultural virtues. Theresa May said, “If you are a citizen of the World, you are a citizen of nowhere.” If you aren’t someone, you are no-one. You might as well be a citizen of the World, then you are no-one and belong nowhere.


              A father in the house, a good coach, religion and or a disciplined and classical education offer children a foundation, an identify, a definition of citizenship and a way to be someone - hopefully a good citizen.

Tuesday, November 01, 2022


           Mitigating inflation with higher interest rates causes stagflation. Why? The Fed targets unemployment as the yardstick for their intervention. The Phillips curve shows a historical correlation between inflation and low unemployment. It does not show cause and effect. It begs the question, which is worse unemployment or inflation. Truly increasing interest rates to an unsustainable level will eventually cause unemployment to rise and slow inflation. What a cruel solution. 

            If inflation results from simple supply and demand, one might better take action that increases supply of products to the point of reducing demand. Decreasing the money supply also reduces inflation, but an emotional loss of consumer spending also causes establishments to raise their prices to cover their fixed costs.

            Decreased regulation, decreased taxes and local production incentives should do more to control inflation than increased interest rates. Produce your way out of inflation. The velocity of the economy does more than the money supply. 

Monday, October 31, 2022

Suicide of a Civilization

Globalization or Democracy compares present day US concentration of wealth in the hands of the rich, a phenomena economists call capital divergence, with the poverty caused by the industrial revolution and loss of the middle class in England. Eighteenth century England achieved massive wealth through colonialism, empire and world trade. The book argues that a widely forgotten macro economic formula explained the tragic loss of middle class in England and in today’s US globalism.

Sectoral Balances equation by Godley and Cripps, a formula taught in first-year economics where S = domestic savings; m = imports; x = exports; I = investments; g = government spending and t = treasury revenue: 

S + (m-x) = I + (g-t)

          In reading Eric Cline’s 1177, Cline pictures a system of highly developed international trade that looks exactly like what we have now, great wealth, cheap foreign imports and a loss of middle class wealth. The collapse of 1177 involves a mass influx of migrants, pandemic, drought and war. Did the same capital divergence lead the way? And what about Athens? What about Rome. 

          Toynbee said civilizations die by suicide. They do it to themselves from within, not from conquest from without. Today America suffers all of the above with capital divergence, migrants, inflation, pandemic, war, food and energy shortages, fentanyl, suicide, and depression. We did it to ourselves. 

Sunday, October 30, 2022


Saturday, October 29, 2022

1177 bc

 Eric Cline’s book 1177bc, the year civilization collapsed, describes the massive invasion of the migrant Sea People, pestilence and drought as the causes of the collapse. Egypt and other countries around the Mediterranean enjoyed great prosperity from extensive trade in goods, metals in a free shipping trade, much like what present day globalization tried to achieve. 

While historians question the causes of the collapse of civilization in a highly successful globalism, might not the collapse of 1177 bc resemble the problems we experience today with Globalization? Massive migration at our southern border, capital divergence, inflation, loss of our middle class, pandemic, war and  global warming- drought.

Globalization or Democracy shows the mechanism of capital divergence underlying the long term cycle of depression. The book further documents the loss of Middle Class, unraveling of representative government and national security. Might inflation and authoritarianism not result from government attempts to stimulate our failing economy — a game of monopoly, all the wealth on Board Walk, game over. We see all the attributes of Eric Cline’s 1177bc collapse plus an energy crisis.