Hughesair (Inflection Point)

Retired physician and air taxi operator, science writer and part time assistant professor, these editorials cover a wide range of topics. Mostly non political, mostly true, I write more from experience than from research and more from science than convention. Subjects cover medicine, Alaska aviation, economics, technology and an occasional book review. The Floatplane book is out there. I am currently working on Hippocrates a History of Medicine and Globalism. Enjoy!

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Tuesday, July 13, 2021

13 Sophistical Refutations, Aristotle


1.    Accent: false emphasis 

False news neglects all positive attributes and events for the opposition while emphasizing events and characteristics of the favored political party. 

2.    Amphibole: structure has more than one meaning

Covering an event for the opposition in a way that offers a negative interpretation

3.    Equivocation: word has more than one meaning

Same strategy as the ambiguous sentence, choosing words that have an element of truth but carry an easy negative meaning

4.    Composition: if A is X and B is X, then the group to which A and B belong are all X

5.    Division: X has Y, P is like X so P also has Y – 

Most common false news assertion

6.    Figure of Speech: same word, different meaning

An easy path to ambiguity

7.    Accident: X is explained by rule Y, but X does not fall under rule Y — most common structure of current false new

8.    Affirming the Consequent: if A is true, then B is true. Therefore A is true. — common

9.    In a Certain Respect: A is an attribute of B. So, A is an attribute of C

10.  Missing the Point (ignorance of refutation): statements lead to conclusion X. Yet conclusion Y is drawn

11.  Begging the Question: if A is not wrong, then A is right. 

12.  False Cause: asserting that A causes B when only a correlation between A Nd B exists. (Sleep apnea/ AF)

13. Many Questions: overwhelms the opposition 


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